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2016-7-10 22:27| 发布者: admin| 查看: 122| 评论: 0

摘要: 医学知识双语阅读:口腔检查


  Source: http://www.zuinow.com/n4363859.html

Examination of the oral cavity is part of every general physical examination. Oral findings in many systemic diseases are unique, are sometimes pathognomonic, and may be the first sign of the disease. Early detection of oral cancer may be possible. 

  A dental history is obtained first. It may indicate a particular dental problem or neglect of dental care. A complaint of difficulty in chewing food suggests insufficient teeth for proper mastication, loose or painful teeth, poorly fitting dental appliances, or disorders of the temporomandibular joint or the masticatory muscles. Slight bleeding after brushing suggests mild gingivitis; frequent, spontaneous, or profuse bleeding may indicate a blood dyscrasia. Recurring oral infections may indicate diabetes mellitus (the most common cause), agranulocytosis, neutropenia, leukemia, immunoglobulin defects, or disorders of leukocyte function. Immunosuppressed persons may experience painful reactivation of oral herpes simplex or other infections, with pain, oral ulcerations, and consequent interference with food intake. 

  A thorough evaluation requires good illumination, a tongue blade, gloves, and a gauze pad. A dental or laryngeal mirror, if available, is helpful.    

  The examiner initially looks at the face for appreciable asymmetry, skin lesions, and other abnormalities, such as restricted movement during speech, as occurs in scleroderma or acromegaly. Numerous congenital syndromes produce characteristic facies. For example, a very thin upper lip suggests the fetal alcohol syndrome or Prader-Willi syndrome. Trauma in youth, particularly blunt trauma to the point of the chin, can damage growth centers in the condyles and lead to unilateral or bilateral impairment of mandibular growth. Idiopathic hypertrophy of one or both sides of the mandible or other parts of the face may distort the face, as may acromegaly or a salivary gland or jaw tumor. If the posterior teeth or dental prostheses are missing, the cheeks may be sunken, producing a prematurely aged or cachectic appearance. One or both cheeks may appear swollen due to cherubism, parotitis, Sjögren's syndrome, tumor, an excessively thick denture flange, or cellulitis from an abscessed tooth. Multiple basal cell carcinomas on the face may indicate the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, which alerts the examiner to look for multiple odontogenic keratocysts on x-rays. 

  The lips are palpated. With the patient's mouth open, the buccal mucosa and vestibules are examined using a tongue blade; then the hard and soft palates, uvula, and oropharynx are viewed. The patient is asked to extend the tongue as far as possible, exposing the dorsum, and to move the extended tongue as far as possible to each side, so that its posterolateral surfaces can be seen. If a patient does not extend the tongue far enough for the circumvallate papillae to be seen, the examiner uses a gauze pad to grasp the tip of the tongue and extend it to the desired position. The tongue is then raised to view the ventral surface and the floor of the mouth. The teeth and gingivae should be viewed. 

With gloved hand, the examiner palpates the vestibules and the area over the roots of the teeth with one finger and the cheek with two fingers. The index finger of the dominant hand is inserted inside the mouth, and the contents of the floor of the mouth are compressed gently between it and the fingers of the other hand. To make palpitation more comfortable, the examiner asks the patient to relax the mouth, keeping it open just wide enough to allow access. The cervical lymph nodes should also be palpated. 

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is assessed by looking for jaw deviation during opening and by palpating the head of the condyle, anterior to the ear. The examiner then places his little fingers intrameatally while the patient opens widely and closes three times. The patient should be able to comfortably open wide enough to fit three fingers between the incisors. Trismus, the inability to open the mouth, may indicate scleroderma, arthritis, ankylosis of the TMJ, dislocation of the temporomandibular disk, tetanus, or tonsillar abscess. Unusually wide opening suggests subluxation or type III Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. 

Malodor of exhaled breath may have many causes. Fetor oris originates in the mouth. Most commonly, it is caused by volatile sulfur compounds resulting from bacterial metabolism, particularly when oral hygiene is poor or xerostomia is present. Halitosis may follow eructation from the GI tract or may be caused by systemic metabolic conditions--eg, an acetone odor with diabetes mellitus, a mousy odor with liver failure, and a urinous odor with kidney failure. Halitosis may also originate from the nose, sinuses, nasopharynx, and lungs, particularly when infections or necrotic neoplasms are present. A patient whose breath frequently smells of mouthwash may be masking halitosis or may have parosmia (a perversion of the sense of smell, usually involving smelling unpleasant odors that do not exist). 

















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